Introduction : Post translated the following extract from a book of the Dalai Lama titled "Awakening the Soul, The Wisdom advice to people today" ( L'Esprit en Eveil, Conseils de Sagesse aux hommes d'aujourd'hui , Presses du Châtelet Publishing House, 2009. English version: In My Own Words , publisher Hay House, 2008). Part translation of an entire short chapter (chapter 10, tr. 141-151) raised one of the concepts and the most important characteristics of Buddhism, which is the concept of Emptiness ( sunyata - Vacuite-emptiness) .
Science is the understanding of the outside world and the application of that knowledge. That is the definition of science today. But also an understanding of different areas, set on the principle of access and other research methods, especially related to the phenomenon of internal ( ie internal ) , and applied to the phenomenon knowledge or consciousness as such. Both scientific studies were aimed trenday a common goal of how to bring satisfaction and happiness to people, and there are also concerns their deepest. Subjects and methods of both disciplines that study were done by creative people, so they necessarily directly related to them. A scientific study of phenomena outside is no different with the image of a nguoidang pursuit of happiness, because knowledge is closely linked to them, whether they are proficient in this area or not. Conversely, any one who as the spiritual direction of the field and constant attention to knowledge or meditation, is certain sooner or later have to confront the material realm ( although that is only interested to the inner phenomenon but in fact can not be cast aside sutim understand the material realm ) . Between the two approaches which ( for the spiritual and material ) , no one method can be called entirely to be able to stand alone. If one of two ways you can survive independently, they may need densu support any of the other way. Personality of the random variable phenomena or philosophical foundation of the Buddhist way of looking for phenomena are character-oriented random variable ( or random, uncertainty, surprise ..., contingency ) of them. Please capden concept of random variables all phenomena also means raising the correlated traits and similarities between all objects ( interdependence ) , or the existence of them necessarily dependent on something else. For a physical phenomenon, one can determine that it exists because of the composition of it, for a structural phenomenon of non-physical nature, the existence of it is appointed or because of the continuity of it, or by a specified kind of continuity that he ( ie a mental phenomena are related to the continuity of nodoi with time or may manifest form or manifestation continuous stream of it on him ) . Thus, although the phenomenon of internal ( ie mental ) or external (the material) is in any case they can not exist independently of the components ( for the physical phenomena ) or they can manifest as ( for mental phenomena ) . For any phenomenon, whether it is trying to find every way to determine the existence of them, then we are no thephat is any small traces give evidence to the authenticity of his existence - that is no small pieces of any one does anything to finger pointing that there almost prove the existence of a phenomenon - so we can conclude that a phenomenon exists solely through the guesswork of the mind ( this is a very important principle to remember, because it will help track either denying the existence of "self" is presented in the section below) . All phenomena do not contain any independent existence outside the mind stand to conjecture about the their existence ( ie, all phenomena exist only through the guesswork of the mind ) , so the emptiness ( vacuite, emptiness ) that is without any autonomous existence outside the guesswork of the mind. For that reason the existence of objects non-spontaneous ( natural, self-created or self-formed work ...)
that must always depend on numerous conditions, and when conditions change, the material also varies. Thus the phenomenon is manifested depends on a certain number of conditions, and also depends on a number of other conditions for termination and no longer exists. But the absence of everything that exists in itself, not dependent on any one cause or condition, it is a facility for the phenomenon may be modified, such as the apparent or its suspension, etc. .. ( ie due to the absence emptiness of all existence intrinsic to the phenomenon can be modified, meaning that if a phenomenon implies an existence themselves in, constant and enduring, it is no longer any debien change anymore ).
our opinion should also compare the scientific explanation of the role of an entity that is the observation that "participants " ( ie scientists led the observer ) and the Buddhist point of view according to which the observed phenomena are not merely the mental images, the reporter found a photo or consulate of the mind, but they do not could not exist outside the mind, ( this sentence means what the scientist observing or describing the subject depends on scientists ie, what the mind is necessarily a bar to receive the mental images and must rely on the mind and can not exist outside of consciousness) . Mind and matter are two different things, the role of the mind to grasp the material and specify a name. That means that for every phenomenon and not an exception, and whether they are artifacts or merely expressions of the mind and not contain a separate entity, the necessarily the way they present are also required to depend on the ultimate operation of the mind, helps the mind to conjecture the existence of them. Therefore we can also call the mind is a "subject conjecture." In summary the existing way of all phenomena are completely different "subjects conjecture" giuvai them guessing game, but also the existence of them is directly dependent on the main "subject (have) speculation "to them. I have a feeling that he can point as to what the scientific tuongdong cry explained in relation to a subject observed ( ie scientists ) . Although there are differences in terms of terminology, but clearly there is a coincidence in terms of meaning. The true nature of all phenomena At first glance, the concept of random variables and emptiness presented above seem to contradict each other completely. However, if a deeper analysis, people will understand that the tuongdeu apparent or present in a scene totally dependent on each other, and because of the existence of that phenomenon from the substances are in-the blank ( all phenomena can only exist by dependence on each other, outside of which the subject will not be a phenomenon that may exist or appear to be present, properties He called the emptiness of all phenomena ) . Thus one can determine that the random variables ( random, uncertainty, surprise-contingency ) and the emptiness is set on a sole basis for another common, although they showed two different shades ( both real and just change the empty, which means that a phenomenon is always uncertainty should not leave "behind" a nothing but emptiness, so the random variables - contingency - and emptiness - emptiness - is just one ) . On the surface, two opposing matdo ( empty and uncertain events or random variables ) , but on a deeper dimension, both proved fit and complementary to each other ( please consider is no more emptiness means nothingness madung than the phenomenon is always uncertain and volatile and do not necessarily imply a fixed and immutable nature which, so nature does not change the nature or continuity of all phenomena that is "fit" or "coincidence" with a random variable uncertainty of all phenomena. But more should also consider the random variable is of all phenomena also depend on regulation the relevant law - interdependence - that the artifacts caused by conditions that have or are interdependent origination, and of course have to agree as a rule causes further consequences ) . The way in which all phenomena manifest different from the the way they really exist. When the mind to grasp the way appearing of phenomena ( ie, an artifact caused by conditions that have ) , it thought it was a real existence to hold on to that idea or concept that individual , and that is the cause of bringing the wrong. Since the concept or idea which completely confused right from grade to grasp the object, should be considered completely opposed to the true existence of phenomena, and with the reality anymore. The reason for the deviation or the opposite happens between "what is true" and "what is apparent" because the phenomenon, but in fact completely contained any particular entity does, so but still out with a normal mind ( ie a reasoning mind veban unfamiliar nature of reality ) as the property contains a suhien autonomy, although they are not featuring him ( in other words, the mind a way it's not customary practice will not get the true nature of all phenomena and see what shows are out front, "right" and how "real" like, and they all contain a "independent existence and self", but really it's just the image is always moving and changing like hallucinations, constantly out and lost with a fast or slow speed only ) . Also, the fact however that the objects are dependent on the cause ( creating them ) and are in-the impermanence, uncertainty, always bear the change, but they still appear to appears to be enduring and unchanging. So something even on theloai suffering but still considered a source of happiness ( eg, "happiness" worried and sad nature entail immense suffering, but still as a source of happiness ) , or something is actually wrong, but still appear as a true ( ie that there is a layer of water on the road under the hot sun) . The conflict between existing methods and how to manifest of all phenomena is a topic often bring a lot of thinking was considered a sophisticated restaurant. The conflict between "what is true" and "what appears is" usually produces enough things wrong. Actually, what has been presented above is also very close to the concept of the difference between the apparent and the existence of a phenomenon that scientists had raised ( eg the nature of light is energy, but the form of energy that can manifest as particles of light called Foton or form of the wave, and depending on the different floors of the wave carrying the colors together. The nature of all phenomena is emptiness, but from the nature of emptiness which has arisen and can form all types of movement and uncertainty detao both an impermanent world around us, which including thoughts and emotions attached to the interior of ours ) . In general, when have understood the meaning of emptiness and uncertainty ( contingency ) of all phenomena is what is making them even more I firmly believe in the rule than the causes consequences. According to the rule that the causes and different conditions will bring consequences, be it positive or negative, but always correlate with them. Thanks to the understanding that we will know the cause honden interested and more aware of the diversity of the different conditions. If we gain a correct understanding of emptiness or are familiar with the soldiers about that concept, then we will avoid the less the distortion thedang mental, such as attachment, hatred , etc. .., the reason the thedang deviations may occur because the recipient of mistakes - mistakes here means not distinguish a transparent manner the difference between "what is true "and" what is manifested. " For example, when observing an object that, through experience we can see the sense of their changes depending on the situation in his mind at that time ( eg before an object, a human or a certain context, we reveal different emotions depending on its mind when it is happy or being sad, worried or relaxed ) . Although observers are always one, but if the mind is in a state of calm, then their reaction will be less intense than when the mind is overwhelmed by very strong emotions, such as anger. The way the truth of all phenomena huudich or, more generally the principle of existence, all is emptiness. If you understand that when they later found that personality conflicts can form outside of which all phenomena, then we would immediately realize his mistake even in the shop getting the deviation that can form. The result is that all the distorted images huongden his mind, such as hatred, attachment, etc. .., arising from a mistake on this concept and from hallucinations due to the nature of conflict all phenomena created, will lose their impact strength. One might raise questions as well: the different intensities of knowledge ( consciousness ) or the mind ( spirit ) arises when we grasp a object ( strong or weak response of knowledge or consciousness before an object observed ) , what happens nhuthe? The reason the level of knowledge capture offers many different intensity because they correlate with different levels of sophistication inner capacity khichdong object-oriented knowledge. The subtly different levels of strength as well as various agitation of knowledge gives rise to the impact of knowledge on object orientation, will determine the different levels to capture knowledge. Need to reflect on the relationship between knowledge of inner and outer world, because this is so important. Many Eastern philosophers, especially the Buddhist philosophers, often raise the concept of four elements: earth, water, fire and air, or if after the addition of space, all will be in ( Dalai Lama advocates must be in part because it needed space to contain and convey the other components ) . The four basic elements - earth, water, fire and air - must be supported by space, which is part makes four basic elements can exist and operate. Space - ie air , or "e-te" (" ether "- space" pure ") -is seen as needed basis to help the operation of all other components are possible. In the component can be divided into two categories: five elements in the external and the internal components ( the world of external reality and inner world ) , and between the two types external and internal in that there is always a close link. According to some Buddhist texts, such as London Business Time ( Kalachakra Tantra ), the composition of space, or "e-te" ( air ) is not an empty tuyetdoi and do not contain any secondary nothing, but instead, space is considered to be composed of "microscopic particles empty." These microscopic particles can empty it as a basis to help the evolution ( or form ) as well as the disappearance of the other four elements ( earth water, fire and air ) likely raduoc. Four components originate from the base space and will return to the base dehoi enter it. The process of the disappearance of this happens in order nhusau: earth, water, fire and air, and the process of forming the nhusau order: air, fire, water and land. This concept will be more easily understood if specified by terms such as hardness ( earth ), liquid ( water ), heat ( fire ) and energy ( gas ). Four components are artifacts from the microscopic particles in order to empty it from subtle to gross, and then disappear into the empty microscopic particles in order from most coarse level to fine level most economic ( please note the above two also coincided with a second process of death and a rebirth of ) . Space or empty microscopic particles are the basis for the entire contribution to the process that can occur. meditation on emptiness To be aware of the fact all these phenomena are not different illusion each other in terms of emptiness, it is necessary to focus the reflections into emptiness. When training thiendinh ( usually ) the purpose of training the mind and improve concentration started to produce results, they then can we start practice on emptiness ( which means first of all to exercise the mind and attention, then be able to meditate on emptiness) . For permission to meditate on emptiness is usually not necessary to abstraction in the thinking of the possible forms outside of the object, but particularly for the tan-tra practice permit must necessarily be abstracted from the mind can form outside of the object. There are two methods to perform the practice of tan- this investigation: the first approach is that we can make all the external form ( ie what appears now ) gone out ( of consciousness ) and then meditate on emptiness, the second approach is the opposite must meditate on the emptiness before and then make all possible types of external objects vanish. Now, we try to explain it briefly true meditation on emptiness. For this process, it is important to identify the existence of what they must be negated. The major Buddhist schools of thought accept the premise called "four marks of Buddhism" ( can see " The concept of the four belts in Buddhism "on the pages of Phong Hoang Hoa Sen Library, Quang Germany ...) . The four premises are as follows: * All that arise from the impermanent cause. * All the phenomena of pollution ( which means the structure ) are suffering. * All both phenomena are not all ego and all share the characteristic of emptiness. * Can only escape from suffering form ( also known as Nirvana ) is the last true peace. To meditate on the emptiness first also means things do not have to bring awareness to meditation, in other words the object is that its existence should be brought to deny. If not identify the subject of denial is what we will not figure out the shadows arise from the lack of it. To make viecay, should first reflect on ourselves, there is also the most practical way ( ie meditation on the emptiness of his own existence ) . We have often said it tunhien as follows: " I do, I eat, I stay here ",... So we try to find out if "I" - or the "myself" he - is manifested in his mind as thenao, and then try to find out about "I" was in different circumstances. For instance, when we imagined back discomfort occurs in the mind when someone blame us unjustly, or remember the excitement when people praise his reviews. While the emotions that happened, our minds fluctuate immensely, but I still feel a very transparent way "I" or the "myself." Every time the "myself" manifested in in their minds, think as soon as it has to be something else with his body and his mind or not, and it has to be an independent entity or not? These may form "myself" or "me" exists in a very lively and thought that we could use a finger to trovao it, to touch it as an independent component with the body and his own mind. The "myself" is a kind of mental mistakes reporters thought the greatest possible: so what we need is denied "I" was. summary mode of conduct that is most important and the first one, ie to determine exactly what to deny ( allow to meditate on emptiness began first by denying the "I" of his own) . The important point is raised experimentally Monday dugia use as the existence of "I" or the "ego" my true self and innovative, in that case we must ask whether "I" that integrate to become one with yourself body and mind, or vice versa it is something completely different with the body and mind, because no method existed Tuesday other than the above two methods. In short, if that "me "exists as an independent entity, then forced us to choose one of two giathiet as follows: either it is integrated with the body and mind to create a unitary, and in certain cases it must coincide with the structure of, or is something else ( not related to the body and mind ) , because no other mode of existence more. So the second important point: either "I "is an element common in the structure of ( the five aggregates ) , or it must be absolutely different. At this point we should reflect on the idea nhusau: if "I" and the combined structure to be into one body, the "self" must be one and the same time body and mind are also required to be the best (can not have a component are grouped in one of the most able, if possible, have the most all must be one) , and all will see them as "self." Conversely, if the "self" is different from the structure of, and if the structure is the sum things complicated, "the self" will be an integrated complex things like that. Then we think more from the following: if the "self" or "I" that exists independently as a separate entity and is completely different from the structure where, in which case the "ego" is something the authentication ( tangible, can "touch" is - Tangible ) , although the structure of (previously associated with it) has gone before. But actually it is not the case. The reasoning above suggests that we could not find an "I" of the structure of.
Furthermore the above reasoning also helps us discover the "I" or "self" independent of each appearing in their knowledge is actually just a misconception, a thuphong thought of the mind. In fact, it does not exist.
Please highlight one example, at Nhá nhem when dawn or sunset, someone saw a snake and scared, but really it was just a coil of rope. Picture snake exists only in the minds of people are scared, the external object - that is the rope - did not contain a kind of emotional about the true existence of a snake ( no " snakes "were associated with a coil of rope, no" I "were associated with the body and mind - that the five aggregates of a-instance) .
The same as above also happen to the structure of. Although we feel that noticed the silhouette of an "ego" of the structure of and it looks like it escaped from the structure of his own, but in fact in the structure with no substance contain any small debris that's something anyone can identify as a "self". What has also presented similar examples of the snake and the rope above, means that the snake did not exist a real, it is only a single reporter image of the mind ( the snake coiled in the inner circle of consciousness, not located next to the coil of rope) .
Just like that, whether we feel identified or captured an individual human being completely different from the structure of creation the individual was, but in fact we can not confirm the existence of the individual was a true by case basis in the structure: nothing there just a label pasted on where only the structure ( when looking at a person, the individual human person created in his mind, the external object is a combination of nguuan, similar to the snake is made development in mind, the outer coil of rope ) . So no one individual actually does contain the object analysis, and we return to the previous situation ( ie not found "self" or "I" in the structure of the bring structure to the analysis, "ego" or "I" was released just a mere image of the mind) .
With regard to types of an object, then if we look at them ( alone ) in terms of objects between them is no different ( there are just fluctuating as possible ) . The only difference arises in the mind stands out the role of feeling, that on the subject ( the object is the object, the mind can play a key role to phandoan and express the difference between the possible types of the object) . When we put the name "snake" to roll the rope it is a wrong idea. When the sun rose higher, we see clearly the object of observation, and we set aside the judgments wrong before, thanks to a more solid way of cognition ( Cognition ) , which is based on a tri otherwise.
The brand "snake" to impose on the rope coil can cause harm ( panic ) . But in the case of a brand that is an individual human being, and even individual human beings was not an objective entity to another, but if we assign the structure of ( a fish he can ) the characteristics of a person, then also unharmed both. It is just because there is a kind of knowledge do enough to eliminate the mistakes ( there are genres or different ways of perception helps easily distinguish between the coils of rope and the snake, if desired thenhung distinguish between the five aggregates and individual human beings is extremely difficult, why is not there a kind of knowledge can adapt to any possible help to hienduoc distinction there. To achieve the possibility that spiritual knowledge to promote the collective wisdom ) .
whatsoever, even if we do hienduoc knowledge possible to help us accept the fact of individual human existence is not completely go again, but the experience itself ( available tutruoc ) our will to fight suquan see it. In summary we can only confirm the existence of individual humans by only thanks to the subjective categories of knowledge - ie knowledge of the role of pasting labels. It is also the reason why things can only exist in name only. It is just because there is no an objective reality at all ( concluding phrase evokes for us the basic doctrine of Duy mode) .
A few words to be your translator:The concept of the nature of emptiness of all phenomena is one of the concepts and the most important characteristics of Buddhism. The concept that involves a lot of areas of philosophy such as philosophy metaphysics ( Metaphysic ), Philosophy of Knowledge ( epistemology ), phenomenology ( Phenomenology ) ... All phenomena ( dharma ) whether the material realm, or non-physical substances are not contained in a self-existence does. It is clear that we can "touch" the objects, " track "the events," imagine "and" describe "the mental image, as well as" feel "the emotion in the mind, but the Buddha said all these things" not true "and that only the" illusion ", and the true nature of the" emptiness " .
Most of the scientists, scholars and philosophers of Western interest in Buddhism are expressed surprise and shocked to discover very bold and super Vietnamese Buddhist above. Indeed, the concept of emptiness of all phenomena was very difficult to comprehend, because it is beyond understanding and normal intelligence. Over on the evolution of human civilization and even in today's world, never had a system tutuong, philosophical or religious concepts raised, except Buddhism.
To comprehend the concept concept of emptiness of existence even under field theories and analysis must also reflect a long and very strong mental focus. Understanding that include multiple levels. In this lecture on Dalai Lama said that even if we reach an understanding with reason and nature are not acceptable "human fish" or "self" does not exist any case, the but the experience is dominated by reality around always out to get it against the bar, because thedu for us to understand "selflessness" is but we always felt "myself" and " others, "" this "and" the other "," good "and" evil, "" the right "and" wrong "...
So suppose maybe we should go beyond what based on personal experience of his long life to thegioi phenomenon, virtually eliminating the obstacles hindering the shop getting the absolute emptiness of existence. When we feel the emptiness that a direct and natural way, no longer hampered by any of a pulse of energy that the power of karma or an effect arising from instinct, then we can say that I can capture the emptiness of existence in this world.
However, in terms of practical and pragmatic, even consistency to get the concept of emptiness of all the subjects at a level that was enough to make it a powerful dose of chemical solutions, to help us eliminate all cling to the illusion in this world and in his own mind. END=VIETNAMESE TRANSLATE ENGLISH BY BACH LIEN HOA.NAM MO SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA.( 3 TIMES ).