Tuesday, 20 September 2011

NATURE AND the path to enlightenment

In Buddhism

Thich Nu Hue Lien

If you understand the psychology and epistemology, the enlightenment is a process of transformation. First is the transformation of knowledge: ignorance is replaced with wisdom. . . Monday is the conversion of emotions: the attitude of fear and anxiety is replaced by the calm and fearless; suffering with happiness. . . Tuesday is the transformation in attitudes: accept the part is replaced by glass. . . Wednesday is the transformation of behavior: the deprivation is replaced with the gift; with dynamic lazy; the destruction by the creation. . .

I. GENERAL Enlightenment

Buddhism begins with the experience of enlightenment Buddha Template-ni-ca ( Sakyamuni Buddha ), is the way or method ( magga ) to reach enlightenment to become Buddha. Buddha ( Buddha ) that is enlightened, fully awakened from the binding and attachment of the world and enlightenment ( Bodhi ) is aware of the existence and life in the eyes of management conditions. As an alert, the teachings or his teachings are directed to enlightenment ( Bodhi ) or awakening fullness ( sambodhi ), nothing can be considered equal.

efforts to valid primary leg of the route itself through meditation and contemplation, the Buddha has become a supreme enlightened being first in human history. After the realization your own path to enlightenment, the Buddha being guided in a skillful and subtle experiences of his enlightenment and the path led him to that purpose. Buddha's teachings are considered so enlightened teaching or a path to enlightenment.

II. Contents of Enlightenment

The concept of enlightenment in Buddhism, including many meanings depending on the context in which it appears. In this article, the writer would like to present briefly some important issues about the nature of enlightenment in Buddhism, through experience, or the path to enlightenment of the Buddha is reflected in the Pali Canon.

1. The attainment of enlightenment is BA MINH

Road wisdom in Buddhism is shown by the experience of the Buddha's enlightenment. According to the Pali Canon, the experience of Buddha's attainment is recorded by the realizations rupa-jhana enter four ( rupajjhanani ), followed by Ba Minh ( tevijja ) in three consecutive cultivation of the night ( Central Business I, 41ff, 521; II, 817ff). Business Gift Sa ( The Business School I, 93ff) function implies that the Ba Minh achieve the final result of unfortunate life. Many texts in the Business School and The ministry also repeated this opinion. The study of the economic content of this allows us to conclude that the process of ultimate enlightenment ( sambodhi ) of the Buddha as well as the final stage of the process leading to A-la-drought effects are understood consistent with the attainment Ba Minh.

Experiences gained in each business card is described as follows: "ignorance of all time was destroyed, proving the wisdom or light arise" ( Central Business I, 54-57). Three cards include:

(I) Sufficiency intelligent network ( pubbe nivasanussati ~ na.na ) means wisdom or memory to many past lives of himself from outline to detail.

(Ii) mark-minh Thien ( dibbacakkhu or sattana.m cutupapata ~ na.na ) recognize the intellectual life and death of beings, the lower strong, noble man, a beautiful, rough bad guys, lucky, unlucky guys, their careers are so happy.

(Iii) Lau-end-position ( asavakkhaya ~ na.na ): Intellectual clear about the reality of suffering and defilements, the cause of their departure, the state of peace by our absence, and the path to the end of them. This is the highest wisdom brings complete freedom for the practitioner.

Current experience of this wonderful experience described in the following:

"With concentration, static, pure, no structure infections, no sorrow, need smooth, easy to use, stable, calm like that, it leads to illegally take care radial location. I win tri-like," This is suffering, "to win tri-like," This is the cause of suffering, "to win tri-like:" This is a hard kill, "to win voters like it:" This is the way to kill pain, "as it wins tri "These are illegal or" win tri-like: "This is the cause of gonorrhea or" win tri-like: "These are counterfeit or eliminated," tri-like victory: "This is the path to or destroy the contraband. "Thanks to know that, because that way, we rid the mind of sex illegal, free from organic contraband, smuggled out of ignorance. For the release itself has thus arisen intellectual understanding : I was liberated. I won the voters' birth was full, was a virtue, do do, do not return back to this state again. "( M . I. 23, 249; MLS. I, 29, 303; Central Business I, 57, 543).

Minh first realization that Buddha is the intellectual property of the chain of rebirth or the past lives of himself in the three worlds. In other words, regeneration is one aspect of reincarnation ( sa.msara ). The existence of other beings in the present as part of a chain is not broken strands of old birth death and rebirth that we are continuing from countless lifetimes in the past. The existence of this need to be aware of with the wisdom to non-attachment can arise in the future. Thus the path is liberation from samsara ends.

Minh Monday that the discovery of the effects of industrial law (P. kamma; S. karma ), which dominates the lives of sentient beings throughout the past present and future. This is an additional aspect of reincarnation. In other words by the end of the business activities create, one step towards the attainment of Nirvana.

Minh appeared last Tuesday, as a natural consequence of the first two cards. The appearance of it very solid and strong base to break the last of reincarnation. It is explained as an understanding of reality concerning the Four Noble Truths or the Four Noble Truths ( Samyutta Nikaya V, 613).

Practical experience of three cards of the Buddha is his statement with a verse and impressive succinctly:

How wandering life
We look but not see,
The construction of this house,
Unfortunately, of rebirth.
Oh! And he did the other (attachment)
Now we have seen you!
The house does not anymore.
Purlins (relatives) who fractured,
Keo column (negativity) victim
Our mind is reached passed away,
Craving total mortal.
( Dhammapada , shelves 153, 154)

Thus, the Buddha's enlightenment is to realize the nature of human existence, an understanding of cause and effect of man and the world. The goal of enlightenment is liberation from the sufferings of samsara and achieve complete happiness, Nibbana.

2. Enlightenment is wisdom the Four Noble Truths

Seen from another angle, the feeling-realization can be considered the intellectual property of the Four Holy Truths or the Four Noble Truths (P. Ariya Saccani Cattari; S. Arya-Satyani Catvari ) [ Samyutta Nikaya V, 614 ]. Four Noble Truths of suffering, including the current status of any existing or dukkha ( dukkha ariya sacca ), causing the suffering of the existing base or file ( dukkha ariya sacca samudaya ), absent state whole block pain suffering or kill Emperor ( dukkha ariya nirodha sacca ) and sacred path leading to the cessation or relief to suffering ( dukkha ariya nirodha gamini-pa.tipada sacca ).

Wisdom of the four noble truths are clear lens with wisdom that (i) birth, aging, death, grief, lamentation, pain, strengths and brain, to not be is suffering in general, five aggregates is suffering; ( ii) intellectual property are the cause of suffering is craving, factors that lead to rebirth, (iii) intellectual property is absent from the entire state of craving and suffering ( Nirvana ), and (iv) intellectual property is Eight Noble Path road sector is suffering the path of liberation ( ariya-atthangika-magga ) [ Central Business I, 115-116].

Classic notes that the process of liberating the Buddha started going by the wisdom of the nature of suffering family life; followed by a resolute mind to overcome life's mundane misery , and finally the attainment of Nirvana by way of meditating on the four holy truths ( Central Business I, 366f; Samyutta Nikaya II, 185f; Anguttara Nikaya I, 260f). After a long process filled with trial practice, the Buddha finally succeeded: complete intellectual property causes of all suffering (Format-file) and the path leading to the cessation of suffering (Suffering-kill-director) , and of achieving Nirvana (Pali: nibbana; Sanskrit: nirva.na ). The intellectual property is the classic definition of enlightenment ( Bodhi ) ( Central Business I, 373f). Buddha said: "It is in the range have a long body have an idea, thought, I proclaim the world, the cause of the world, the destruction of the world and the path leading to the destruction of the world ( Samyutta Kinh, I. 145-146). The world here is not merely the external world, which is used to refer to all variables subject to damage ( Samyutta Nikaya IV, 96).

It's clear to see that the Four Noble Truths represents a practical method to explore a spiritual or objects as they really are: that an object, determine its origin, absences are sure of it how, and methods to achieve that status. Four Noble Truths are also comparable for the progression of a disease before medicine: diseases, causes, cure state, and the cure. Likewise, the Buddha as a physician in the practice of spirit ( Anguttara Nikaya II, 692; IV, 49) have indicated to us that the four stages of a process of spiritual experience, beyond free from all suffering: suffering realize the nature of things in life, determine the cause of the suffering that, absent state of suffering, and the methods to eliminate suffering.

Four events are the eternal truth that all humanity and all living beings on this planet and other planets have to admit. Because the computer can not be negated that four events are called the four noble truths or saints ( Ariya Sacca ). All four events should be considered equally important in a logical sequence. That is the attainment of Nirvana can not be achieved if the path of Nibbana is not present. Similarly, if not the cause of suffering is the absence of pain can not be. If it is not eradicated, then Nirvana is not possible to achieve. But because in fact, suffering is a reality that can not be negative. The cause of them came from lack of awareness and action of human wisdom. Nibbana is absent from the entire state of suffering and the Noble Eightfold Path is the path take us out of suffering. Therefore, the Buddha taught the Four Noble Truths that need to be aware of the following: the reality of suffering need to kill tri ( pari ~ n ~ neyya ), the cause of suffering must be eradicated ( pahatabba ), status complete absence of suffering needs to realize ( sacchikatabba ), and the path out of suffering needs to be practiced ( bhavetabba ) (S. V, 420; Samyutta Nikaya V, 612-613).

Not only have limited value in the experimental process of spiritual direction to freedom, the principle of the Four Noble Truths aware this is also seen as generally applicable formulas for all things are perceived ( Samyutta Business II, 33-34). Look at all the organisms in this manner, one will be able to eradicate his delusions and see things honestly. The notice as it is called primary knowledge ( sammadi.t.thi ) or intelligent comments ( vijja ). In Buddhism, the attainment of this knowledge is also considered to achieve the ultimate goal, liberation of all suffering is Nirvana ( Samyutta Nikaya II, 34).

Again, the Four Noble Truths to be intellectual property with a third ( tipariva.t.tam ) and the Minister of twelve ( dvadasakaram ). Three are three knowledge transfer related to each respective Four Noble Truths of God, created all the generals and twelve. Knowledge is the first to recognize God as it is a ( ~ na.na Sacca , urban transportation). Monday wisdom is to recognize what should be done on each Emperor ( kicca ~ na.na , extension transfer): the truth about the current situation need to understand the suffering, the cause of suffering should be eliminated, absent from the entire state of suffering needs to be realized, and the path leading to cessation of suffering should be practiced. Tuesday knowledge to realize the fulfillment of what should be done ( kata ~ na.na , securities transfer). Buddha said about this as follows:

So when, these monks, these four Noble Truths, the third and twelve generals of such knowledge as they are not careful where pure Ta; this time the monks, until that, in this world with God's, Ma's, Brahma world, subject to mass-Sa, Ba-la-subject, gods and men, I do not have the unsurpassed knowledge of supreme enlightenment.

And so when, these monks, these four Noble Truths, the third and twelve generals of such knowledge as it has been in place smart pure Ta; until then, is the ratio -ordination, in this world with God's, Ma's, Brahma world, with mass Sa-subject, she-la-subject, gods and humans, new evidence we have gained knowledge that supreme supreme sense. ( Samyutta Nikaya V, 613-614)

In other words, enlightenment is the right knowledge the Four Noble Truths.

Enlightenment is the wisdom of causality

In The Award-far ( Ko'savyakhya, VI, 4), the Four Noble Truths were placed under two headings: cause and effect, or the world and of the world (Samsara and Nirvana). The first truth and reality Monday as pain and suffering caused. They represent causality under Reincarnation ( sa.msara ) or of the world ( loka ). Truth Tuesday and Wednesday as the state of the entire absence of suffering and the path leading to freedom from suffering typical of causality Nirvana ( nibbana, nirva.na ), the world production ( paraloka ). The first two truths are regarded as chemical properties of samsara ( sa.msara ) capital filled with contraband or (P. asava ; S. a'srava ), and two final truth as opposed to two legs First of pirated or not (P. anasava; S. ana'srava ) or free from defilements. In summary, the Four Noble Truths to answer the following questions:

1. What's reincarnation? A. Please answer the craving ( our "home) , affliction (P. kilesa; S. kle'sa ) and ignorance ( avijja ).

2. What is the result of reincarnation? A. Please answer is painful or unsatisfactory ( dukkha ).

3. What's Nirvana? A. Please answer the practice is the right path ( magga )

4. Nirvana is the result of what? A. Please answer the cessation of craving, suffering and ignorance.

In other words, enlightenment is the knowledge of causality. That wisdom was evil, evil based obligations, intellectual property is good and basically good base ( Central Business I, 112). Ten karma is evil, greed, hatred and delusion is the root of evil duties. Ten good karma is good, not greed, hatred and delusion is based basically good.

. Enlightenment vision that Interdependent Origination

The Four Noble Truths, the Holy Empire and the first Monday as belonging Interdependent Origination ( Paticcasamuppada ) ( Anguttara Nikaya I, 318). Be understood as interdependent origination activity across all six forms of beings in samsara is (hell, hungry ghosts, animals, people, a-tu-la and sun) and in three realms: education world ( kamadhatu ), rupa ( rupadhatu ) and formless world ( arupadhatu ). Interdependent Origination is the Buddha after his right wisdom of supreme enlightenment ( Buddhist scriptures Self Theory 1 & 2).

Interdependent Origination (P. paticca-samuppada, S. pratitya-samutpada ) is the same principle of relativity of all things in this world phenomena, from tangible to intangible, from matter to mind reasons. Interdependent character of existing properties is described in relative terms as follows:

Due to this presence, the other is present. Because of this birth, the other being. Since this is absent, the other is absent. Do this kill, kill the other. ( Samyutta Nikaya II, 55-56, 119, 171; Central Business II, 453; III 222).

In connection with the present reincarnation of the six realms of beings in the three-way, interdependent origination is getting out of twelve causal chain ( nidana ), contact a relative to one another in the following ways:

Due to ignorance (P. avijja , S. avidya ) should present the ( existence, sa.mskara ) are present; due to the presence of ( vi ~ n ~ nana, vij ~ nàna ) are present; the presence of to name colors ( namarupa ) are present; by name identity should be present at the entry ( salayatana. sa.dayatana ) are present; by the present record entry should contact ( phassa, spar'sa ) are present; so there should contact Life ( vedanā, vendana ) are present; so there should be loving life ( our "home, trsna) are present; by loving presence to the ( upadana ) are present; by the present procedure should be useful ( bhava ) are present; by property available to birth ( jati ) are present; by being present old and die ( jaramara.na ) are present. Do old dead there should be present ignorance ( Samyutta Nikaya II, 10; Anguttara Business I, 318).

And so, fate started again from scratch. And so that rotation of the endless cycle of reincarnation from the past to the present and future. In the experimental process of spiritual direction to liberation, the Buddha emphasized the three grace, that is, overcoming ignorance, craving and players. Remove the three karmic yogi practice this will definitely break the cycle of reincarnation and suffering chains liberated fruit taste of Nirvana.

Thought should also be noted that in the conditions of dependent origination, passing round the concept of reincarnation does not mean that ignorance is suffering from the first link of life and death. Because Buddhism does not admit a first cause birth causes the other. Therefore, ignorance is not a human, is not the first cause. Ignorance caused by gonorrhea or ( asava ) as human. Kinh said: "From the start of the illegal practice or, start a collection of ignorance, from the cessation of illegal or cessation of ignorance." ( Central Business I, 127). In other words, the similarity of the chain of twelve questions can start by getting Chain attachment ( ta.nha ), or even with food ( ahara ) . There are four types of food: food groups, make contacts, from the concept and practices. (See Samyutta Nikaya II, 27-29, 180-185). The questions this causal chain moving in a ring has no absolute beginning, and not related to time or space. Thus we see the Interdependent Origination of Buddhism does not explain the source of the world which is just to confirm things in life that is born from causes and conditions. Interdependent Origination formula is also used to prove that the world exists for a relatively no object so it can be a constant. In other words, if the Buddhist world and all things are possible, a real entity that is the same under the principle of dependent origination, also known as "y tha nature of dependent origination" ( Idapaccayata Paticcasamuppada ) ( Central Business I, 375). This means that the things of the world are interdependent existence. Therefore, the principle of dependent origination is considered key to the truth. In other words, when the author realized the truth of this truth, then he saw the "truth" of all existence on earth. For the above reasons, the Buddha has assimilated the wisdom of dependent origination to see the Buddha and the Dharma:

"Who is that interdependent origination, see the legal person; one that is legal, he sees the interdependent origination. ( Central Business I, 422).

This formula answers the main problems of human life ( Samyutta Nikaya II, 46) and the world, which are being or have attachments ( atthita ) or without ( natthita ) as the two extremes of separately ( Samyutta Nikaya II, 37, 140).

Buddha is not just the first in human history have discovered the operation of multiplication problems this predestined chain of twelve, he also was the first to have mastered them in his hands and he was cut off getting them into discrete chains so that they will never be able to tie him to the miseries of the three realms of six sugar. So he was enlightened, and his enlightenment is enlightenment on the principles of the law of dependent origination.

In short, enlightenment is knowledge of interdependent origination through the Four Noble Truths. December karmic wisdom, about the launch of twelve set of conditions (so this should start the other boot), on the cessation of the twelve causes and conditions (away from this should kill the other), and the child way leading to cessation of the twelve causes and conditions (road sector Eight Noble Path) ( Central Business I, 117-128).


With wisdom the Four Noble Truths, as well as intellectual property of Interdependent Origination, the practice will see three fundamental truth ( Tilakkhana ) of all that exists is impermanent ( anicca ), suffering ( dukkha ), and non-self ( anatta ). Beings and the objects of the world's only existing relationship and so they are very often being killed and the origin of suffering. Except for enlightenment and Nirvana, nothing that did not come with strings causes and conditions. What size are the empty-self, no ego, no ego property, can not do what we want ( Central Business III, 100; Samyutta Nikaya IV, 97). After seeing this, boring ( nibbada ) arises in the meditator's mind. Do so boring ly involved ( viraga ) appears. Do visit attitudes ly practitioners should be free ( vimutti ). The climax of this process is free to practice knowledge ( vimutti ~ na.nadassana ) or complete enlightenment ( sambodhi ). ( Samyutta Nikaya III, 155)

6. Enlightenment is see-Soul

As consequence of Interdependent Origination, the Buddha stated that an entity can not be constant and unchanged, including down, and all or anything that belongs to the components of the human or non- human, physical, or mental phenomena, can not be identified with permanent self, because, in that case, it is by grace and the damage will be subject to change. The human component is only a temporary existence, so man should not grasp at them and not think about them with the attitude "this is mine" ( eta.m mama ), "this is me "( ESO 'ham asmi ) and "this is my ego" ( ESO me atta ) [ S. IV. 2ff; Samyutta Nikaya IV, 82].

Buddha realized that love is the main intersection of earthly suffering, and the best way to eliminate this ego is the knowledge that there is no permanent self. The concept of ego is the source of all suffering of man's existence. Tendency to go against the self respect of the world, the Buddha's teachings that all things including being a self and all of a human capital depends on the law of dependent origination. No object of any human or non human that is not common law.

7. Enlightenment is wisdom IS NOT THE LEGAL

The concept of "no" (P. su ~ n ~ Nata, S. sunyata) in Buddhism is not completely empty so no. It is a term used only the absence of self ( Samyutta Nikaya IV, 97; Central Business III, 100). From the Interdependent Origination, everything that the phenomenon appears to exist and pass away and become something else and so on. . are formed by chains of interdependence conditions. That is, they only exist in relation to conditioned life. They seem to just "live" on the "phenomenon" but "not really" in "of." Once aware of the law is not-self, he will recognize the emptiness of the law. No ( sunyata) vertical or beyond the "on" both aspects of claims and negative, exist and not exist, survive or perish.

8. Enlightenment is as true knowledge

From a different approach, enlightenment in Buddhism means the wisdom of nature "as the market" of all things (P. na.nadassana yathabhuta-~ , S. ~ nanadar'sana yathabhuta.mj ) . That means looking at things as their nature is, without any addition to any imposed on the attributes themselves. Mahayana sutras, especially the economic France United has developed a cognitive behavior ultimately true nature of things the principle of "low market" are: (i) as urban nature, (ii) as general market, (iii) as to market, (iv) as market forces, (v) as the market works, (vi) as visionaries, (vii) as charming market, (viii) such as market performance, (ix) as market notice, (x) as four-sided market ends. Moral values ​​and vision of things right with their nature is, is that it enables the practitioner non-attachment to the external world and the world's emotions and their behavior. Thus one can live life in automotive applications, beyond freedom from bondage. When no longer bound, one will mind liberation and liberation is done with wisdom.

9. Enlightenment is GOODS FOR MILITARY MA, anger, SI

According to the Buddha, our six senses and their objects is a glowing fire with fire by taking three ( lobha ), anger ( dosa ) and ignorance ( moha ). The purpose of experimental spiritual path in Buddhism is how tostruck it off the flame. The theory of three fire was first mentioned in Tuesday teachings of the Buddha, The Adittapariyaya Sutta ( Dictionary of Pali Proper Names , p. 247) or Business on fire ( Aditta Sutta in the Samyutta Nikaya IV, 33 - 40). Mara term is used in the Pali literature, the figurative rather than literal meaning of the word. Ma here does not mean or evil as the devil in the economic Jataka legends have modernization, but to refer to "death" ( Samyutta Nikaya I, 283; Dhammapada , shelves 46, 47, 48 , 287; Business Group , shelves 357, 587 etc ...) and more importantly the negativity ( kilesa ) ( Business Group , shelf 166; Dhammapada , shelves 37, 276, 350). In that context, the concept of enlightenment here as well does not mean winning foreign ma, ma four external forces, that is to win the illegal invaders or name and defilement in the mind ( Central Business I, 360; Business file , shelf 425-449).

Pali Canon has listed the ten forces that important that all practitioners should seek enlightenment resilient struggle to destroy them. Army of One is education, as any optimism Monday, Tuesday was hungry and thirsty, craving is Wednesday, Thursday was more hypnotic bass, is the dreaded Friday, Saturday is suspected, the eighth is to bring persistent phase, is the ninth title of respect good fame, and the tenth is his self-promoting, defame others ( Business Group , shelves 436-439). The army of this drug resides in the mind of man, blocking the enlightenment of the meditator. The appearance of Mara minutes before the Buddha achieved enlightenment, supreme is the appearance of the enemy ten names mentioned afflictions that have won the Buddha through meditation. That triumph was the Buddha and the A-la-han said Tuesday in proving that knowledge of the cessation of all illegal or (illegally take place).

Thus, the struggle with the demonic is the photography for the mind in overcoming the negativity ( kilesa ), except for obstacles up care ( nivara.na ) which prevent the path to liberation. Sutras that the Buddha described the victory was the army with the sword that this wisdom ( Business Group , shelf 443; Dhammapada , shelf 40). So enlightenment can say is that military goods for the mind, extinguish greed, hatred and delusion, the end of the fetters, being liberated y (the cause of rebirth), recognizes an Nirvana net.

III. The path to Enlightenment

If the Buddha is an enlightened man, not God or creator, then what he was enlightened and accomplished, of course, others can achieve and do. But how to achieve? Simple answer is to boldly step foot firmly placed on the ancient path that the Buddha had gone through. It is the path: get leg pain as a reality, trace the origin of suffering, feeling miserable state of absence and made it way out of suffering. That is the path to the cessation of suffering, from birth to the world of the world's very being, from confusion to awareness.

Classic records that after quitting the two extremes: the passionate sex in the ( kamasukhallikanuyoga ) and his self-suffering ( attakilamthanuyoga ), the Buddha was determined to take the middle path ( Majjhima pa.tipada), which Holy is the way of eight sectors ( Samyutta Nikaya V, 611). This path can be summarized in three characteristics: gender ( sìla ), the ( concentration ) and wisdom ( pa ~ n ~ na) [ Central Business I, 660). The road into eight sectors, including the right view ( samma di.t.thi ), right thought ( samma sankappa ), Right Speech ( Samma Vaca ), Right Action ( Samma kammanta ), Right Livelihood ( Samma ajiva ), right effort ( Samma vayama ), mindfulness ( samma sati ), and Right Concentration ( Samma concentration ) ( Samyutta Nikaya V, 612 and many other).

The practice of this method is divided into three groups of pure ( tisikkha ), namely: (i) Property Studies ( pa ~ n ~ na ) includes news and right thinking, (ii) academic ( sìla ) News includes right speech, right action and right livelihood, and (iii) to study ( concentration ) of primary news effort, right mindfulness and right concentration ( Central Business I, 660). The path to enlightenment of a grade school property including the eight factors as mentioned, while the path of A-la-drought level of spending tens of capital spending eight plus two more on the new district location ( Samma ~ na.na ) and right liberation ( Samma vimutti ) ( Central Business III, 245; Anguttara Nikaya IV, 563). Thus, three very smuggled into four very illegally school degree the addition of free education ( vimutti ) ( Anguttara Nikaya I, 550-551, 703; II, 271), or may become illegal in numerous Study by the addition of free knowledge ( vimutti ~ na.nadassana ) ( Anguttara Nikaya II, 747).

Right view is the most important factor in Buddhism ( Central Business III, 238). In terms of history, Buddhism has been derived from the supreme enlightenment of Buddha under the Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya. In terms of causality, we can say that Buddhism began when Prince Siddhattha shape, the future Buddha, witnessed three phenomena of life: an old man, a sick person, and one death. Throughout this scene his state recognized the truth of suffering ( dukkha ), the first truth of the Four Noble Truths, and realize this is not nothing but right view or a true point ( Samma di.t.thi ) first step of the way Noble Path.

Government is aware of the right view or right view ( Sammadi.t.thi ) had earlier urged him to give up family life, to search for the remaining three truths, which is the cause of suffering, Nirvana and the way out of suffering. After six years of practice with many challenges, and finally he has attained liberation knowledge ( Vimutti ~ na.nadassana ). The process of ultimate enlightenment, so start with the right knowledge ( Sammadi.t.thi ) and ends with the liberation knowledge ( Vimutti ~ na.nadassana ). Liberating knowledge is also understood as synonymous with enlightenment completely ( Sammasambodhi ), the highest level of insight that a certified practitioner can achieve. After the successful implementation of the sufferings of love path, the Buddha has declared that: "then and now, I only speak the suffering and the cessation of suffering." ( Central Business I, 318). And he also claims that his theory is only one position, which is liberated. (Ud.p. 56; Business Buddhist Theory , p. 352)

Right knowledge ( sammadi.t.thi ), the first enlightened awareness, practice and should be accumulated with the help from outside as well as the wisdom of him ( Central Business I, 644). Enlightened perspective is the basis primarily for the student to gather and develop their own liberation from samsara. It is a three identify the nature or characteristics of life ( tilakkha.na ) which is impermanent ( anicca ), suffering ( dukkha ) and non-self ( anatta ) ( Central Business I, 313-315, 510 - 511). This reduces the chance that the attitude of conceit of "I" of attachment behavior ( abhijja ) "my" anger as the indemnity ( vyapada ). In the eight sectors holy path, right understanding and right thought to the way that leads to right speech,the industry, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration. Achievements such as the spiritual peace of mind can help you yogi escape the domination of the world, attitudes toward life and liberation ly involved ( Central Business I, 316).

Enlightenment or knowledge to liberation is the ultimate expression of the attainment of the highest qualities of life. It is the right place ( ~ na.na ) or sacred wisdom ( pa ~ n ~ na ). The Reincarnation ( sa.msara ) it temporarily does not exist, because of ignorance ( avijja ) or the absence of proper knowledge. Thanks to it being found that liberation. In other words, thanks to the existence of intelligence that the reincarnation of an individual through the operation of the contraband or ( asava ) cut off or completely destroyed ( Central Business II, 300). At this point, the sacred disciple has completed the path to freedom, including spending ten parts.

However, some also mentioned economic enlightenment as the inevitable result of the practice other than the eight right path. For example, Samyutta Nikaya copy that through the practice of the Four As Italian Education ( iddhi-pada ) that the Tathagata is called the A-la-drought, supreme Enlightenment ( Samyutta Nikaya V, 423). Also in Business Samyutta , in a different section, the Buddha said thanks to the development of Nam Can ( pa ~ ncindriyani ) ( Samyutta Nikaya V, 312, 361) or cultivate Bodhi That section ( satta bojjha " ivory ) that ordinary beings become enlightened ( Samyutta Nikaya V, 201-202).

Later, the practice is the number increased to thirty-seven leading product support ( sattati.msa bodhipakkhiya dhammā ) ( the Business School I, 614). With the development of Mahayana Buddhism, the Ba-la-bile ( Paramita) and Address (bhumis ) is considered as the path to enlightenment (View Products Cross Place in the Flower Adornment Sutra ). Then gradually, the path to enlightenment is multiplied into eighty-four thousand teachings, a number that represents the bulk can not be counted. That is, according to Mahayana Buddhism, the path to enlightenment is not limited, open to all living beings with hearts to reach liberation from suffering the flames of the three worlds.


If you understand the psychology and epistemology, the enlightenment is a process of transformation. The transformation can take place in four ways, which is knowledge, emotions, attitudes and behavior. First is the transformation of knowledge: ignorance ( avijja ) is replaced with wisdom ( pa ~ n ~ vijja = na ). Monday is the conversion of emotions: the attitude of fear and anxiety is replaced by the calm and fearless; suffering with happiness, greedy, stingy is replaced by the benevolent, willing to help others; egoism or selfishness is replaced with sheet selfless altruism, etc. ... Tuesday is the transformation in attitudes: accept the part is replaced with glass; hatred in friendship; ill with compassion. Wednesday is the transformation of behavior: the deprivation is replaced with the gift; with dynamic lazy; the destruction by the creation. . .

Four aspects of metabolism in the capital as interdependent Interdependent Origination ( pa.ticcasamuppada ). That is the transformation of knowledge may lead to emotional transformation, which leads to a change in attitudes, and behavior, to get a life of purity and peace of mind thought, word and action.

Buddhists practice the path to enlightenment is to make yourself happy and bring happiness to others right now. Depending on the level of wisdom that happiness achieved results more or less. He says: "The only one practice, the achievement is only partial; the full practice, the achievements are full." ( Anguttara Nikaya I, 422). Similarly, Samyutta Nikaya V, 315 stated: "Who do fullness, the fullness results; who work separately, the partial results."

In summary, different from and beyond salvation in other religions, the Buddhist enlightenment is not something mysterious or supernatural. It is a comprehensive transformation of knowledge, emotions, attitudes and behavior. Enlightenment can thus achieve or experience in this life even when the true efforts of individuals to invest and perform properly. Because the fruit of enlightenment is done right in this miserable life, at this present moment, who attained enlightenment in the world lived like people, there are daily necessities, perform duties , but there is, he does not like the secular, in that, he absolutely no longer the personal attachment, the narrow-minded, selfish; contrary he lived with altruism, without any problems things in life ( Anguttara Nikaya IV, 444). He heart of the business therefore be described as a bird flying over the vast blue sky without a trace! ( Dhammapada, shelves 92-93).END=VIETNAMESE TRANSLATE ENGLISH BY BACH LIEN HOA.NAM MO SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA.( 3 TIMES ).


- The references to the Pali Canon and the English translation in this article are based on the edition of the Tipitaka (PTS). The Vietnamese translation of the Pali Canon are the HT. Thich Minh Chau, Dai Tang Kinh edition of Vietnam, the Vietnam Institute of publication.

- P and S in parentheses stands for the Pali and Sanskrit words.

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